The Social and Economical Benefits of Sport
Sport is a movement basically. But this movement is a sociological event, cause of being done within the discipline and certain rules whether as personal or group. More importantly, sport is a movement which can provide the situation to be a balance and good with all extents for people in every extent ( such as physiological, sociological, psychological, economical ) within welfare (WELLNESS) described by World Health Organization ( WHO).
We need to know what sport is to understand these benefits.
Sport can be thought in 2 groups as elite or recreative for somebody who makes sport.
In the sport having a purpose of elite person has an aim to make realize sport in intensively and high level by means of learning deeply, exhibiting and consolidating with technical and tactic. So has an aim to take the medal. In this way, the organizations such as teams, clubs, federations, etc and the jobs such as trainer, masseur, sports doctors, etc are have come out.
In the sport having a purpose of recreative person aims to act selectively as optional and volunteer for personal or group for the independent and without connection free time that stays out of spared time even to get personal satisfaction completely for working and obligatory necessities, on the purpose of getting again,protecting or keeping going, taking pleasure and delight in the same time to the body and mental healthy that affected from intensive working charge, rutin lifestyle or negative environmental effects too. In the same time, this aim is a basic description of recreation.
Sport is a mental or physical movement. This movement is the majority social or communal. Even the benefits that sports provide to a person causes to be an active / contributed person in more social and community in the end.
The Social / Communal Benefits of Sports
Environmentalism and sport are so intertwined that the most important from the quantities that the owner of olympiads which is the biggest sports organization IOC ( International Olympiad Committee ) mentions to give Olympiad Games Organization for a city emerges environmentalist. IOC takes care of both the environmental construction of candidate city about this and environmental approaches in sport centre and the environmental consciousness and manner of folk. IOC asks these questions to a candidate city :
The habitats that are searched as the places which the most prefered sports by people in the recreative approaching of sports (Bicycle, Jogging, Walking, Streetball, etc.) are areas in which there aren’t voice, weather and land pollution in greens. Therefore, recreation expert are trying to make recreation areas in urban planning have green and sportive features predominantly.
-Sport provides social consolidation and solidarity. Across the board an approachment (FAIR PLAY) confesses with an approachment which ignores features such as race, nationality, religion, cult, social position, education, culture and economical differences that distribute people in societies in the universal values of sport. Specially recreative sport which participation is brought to forefront instead of winning has a important role on the purpose of decreasing group identity conflict. Social, economical or education differences disappear or make them unimportant in recreative sport. People from all strata come together and find a common ground in accordance with mutual pleasures. Sport provides an opportunity to know each other, form a friendship and work together on mutual aims for people from all strata.
-For example; ethnic origin, race, religion, social and cultural situation, education level or economical aspect that players which are in a basketball team aren’t unregarded and be at the forefront by none of attendants. The matter that players which are from all strata and compose team make mutual and primarily compound attentions is itself as basketball activity. This situation makes community life quality improve, makes the value of community morale raise.
-Sport contributes an important contribution to create democratical community. Person improves values specially by means of team sports such as carrying out connection with others as part of rules, taking the lead to group and / or keeping company withwith leader, adoption taken decisions, keeping company with mutual aims. These venues are very important individual venues with regards to Democratical Community.
-Sport makes people sociable; mostly it plays a big part in development and setup social relations. Thusly, the efforts such as occuring new friendships, taking a place in society, comprehending their place and recognizing other group members make available to make person develop and get used to community life by affecting its social life. Thanks to sport social constructions (association, club, facility, etc.) increase in places which societies that have these venues live and people who are in environment which mutual enthusiasm and excitements are shared in get in contact more social.
-Sport and recreative approachment help variety to increase in society. Being in search of many activities that people will do in their free time will bring with variety and social wealth. Recreation and sport have positive impact such as souped up national soul, social harmony (national agreement), family tie become strong (approachment in family relationship), the acceptance of elders ( their feeling benefical themselves by creating interests) on the progress of social and communal behaviours.
-As Jean Harvey from Ottowa University in Canada and Francois Houle mentioned in the article with title of Sport, World Economy, Global Culture,and New Social Movements listed in the journal ( Sociology of Sport Journal, 1994,11, 337-355), sport has impressed so deeply from new social movements such as feminism and ecologism and has become their supporter.
Moreover sport helps supranational communication to establish and communal consciousness to develop with a supranational identity. Nowadays sociologists embrace the development evaluation of societies as term WELWARE (Wellness) revealed by World Health Organization (WHO) collaterally and interpret a community and individuals that compose it not only what they being but also fertile in workplace environment interests in their free time after work. RECREATIVE SPORT has a place so much in evaluation.
The Economical Benefits of Sports
Recreative sport takes an important place in developed countries, national economy specially when observed as sold equipments, constructed facilities and these operation costs, organized events and economical inputs for these events (ticket window- buffet incomes, attendance – referee prices, etc.). For example in USA; some authors mention that this is second big power in national economy after defence industry.
If sport specially is done with recreative philosophy, it becomes an important part, a passion of human life. In this case people spare time and spend for this. For this reason it is necessary not to be surprised that it is second big power in national economies.
Sport Tourism which is an important part of the modern societies’ life has such an important role in recent years. This connection occurs after starting to have an important role in human and society life, and tourism secture’s desiring to make use of this.
Today in tourism sport stands out in variety ways:
For example: jogging around turistic facilities, providing for walking and bicycle track, taking service with swimming pool as from early hours for guests, etc.) and /or with sport events such a richer and happier atmosphere’s coming into service with individual and social benefits’ coming into service ( for example: step/ aerobics session poolside, in facilities recreative sport games organizations, beach volleyball, banana, water ski, etc. ) are aimed.
This participation aims to participate as active ( Golf, Horse-riding, Mountain bike, Paragliding, football winter camps, basketball winter camps, Football friendly matches, sport kids training camps, middle age basketball tournaments, tennis tournaments, cricket tournaments, swimming competitions, MMA training camps, etc.) as passive ( Olympiads, İnternational championships, etc. )
As Jean Harvey from Ottowa University in Canada and Francois Houle mentioned in the article with title of Sport, World Economy, Global Culture, and New Social Movements listed in the journal ( Sociology of Sport Journal,1994,11, 337-355), big sport organizations (Olympiads, FIFA World Cup, Wimbledon Tennis Tounament,etc.) take an important place in making an effort to get into the market as a supranational and homogenous culture all over the world market strategy of international companies.
As Markus Kurscheidt and his friends mentioned in the article with title of “A Socioeconomic Approach to Sports: Lessons From Fitness and Event Markets”, the market of body building centers have showed up for over 20 years as a rising industry. In 2002 the number of these centers reaches 6500 in Germany and the number of their members reaches 5.08 million and they become a market as circulated 3.16 billion per year. As passed for sex only ladies belong to %12 of these centers and ladies constitute over %50 of all members.
As the article with title “The economic impact of local sport events: significant, limited or otherwise? A case study of four swimming events” which Robert Wilson from Sheffield University has written up, sport event has an important catalyzator feature for economical and urban generation.
As in this respect in investigation that made in England always is expressed the economical affect of big sportive organizations, in a survey for small regional organization occurs these aspects. In economical mobility as 84.628 pounds which occur in 4 regional swimming competitions that continue for 8 days has been detected in gradation from more to less, as expenses of hotel prices, food – beverage, shopping and souvenir. While %55 of these incomes (46.916 pounds) are gained by audiences, they get so exceeded to rates for international swimming competitions (Europe Youths Swimming Competition %8; Europe Short Distance Swimming Competition %9 ). As the rate of players’ economical mobility is %41 (35,264 pounds), they go down so below to rates for international swimming competitions (Europe Youths Swimming Competition %81; Europe Short Distance Swimming Competition %56).
Big sport organizations tha impose an important economical burden to host communities till 1980’s ( For example 1976 Munich Olympiad Games 692 billion pounds ) turn into important one each economical income from 1984 Los Angeles Olympiad Games ( 215 million pounds income ). As1996 Atlanta Olympiad Games bring economic mobility of 5,1 billion dollars, it creates about 77.000 new jops in the same time. In USA economical values that declared in national and international sport organizations reach at surprising level.
For example: That 400 million dollars for 1999 championship match Super Bowl in National American Football League (NFL), 75 million dollars profit for match ‘’1999 All Star’’ in American Baseball 1. League and 110 million dollars income for ‘’1998 Basketball Final Four’’ were procreated was declared. Euro 96 in England has been accepted as a big achievement with economical effects ( the payment for 280,000 quantity of visitor audience and journalist is 120 million pounds, 900,000 beds / night work and 4,000 full time jop / year that they created to region hotels. These results causes to go into the effort of bringing big sport organizations to their countries.
It was declared that such big organizations have created so important TV presentation opportunity (6 million poeple and 190 countries). Host can create the image of such an attractive world city for city tourism due to this short-dated TV broadcast. For example Atlanta was approved as a world city after 1996 Olympiad Games. Barcelona still has a city that international sport institutions and sport tourists prefer feature under favour of sports facilities which are inherit from olympiad games. How audiences which watch organization from TV will be got within comes to exist as an important subject and with this way marketing strategies are enforced.
As declaration that Turkey National Olympiad Committee General Secretary declared in Dünya Newspaper: after television and sponsorship rights of games are sold with a good marketing strategy, six city with a record number of that period had become candidate for 1992 Olympiad Games due to games’ contributing to South California economy as 3,29 billion dollars in the end of 1984 Los Angeles Olympiad Games.
As the formal report of Olympiad Games, exportation of industrial properties in 1988 that exported by South Korea which organizes 1988 Seoul Olympiad Games have reached 60-67 billion dollars by showing raise %28.3 as previous year. Gross national product per capita which is 2,321 dollars in 1986 has gone up 3,728 dollars in 1988; again gross national product which is 953 million dollars in 1986 has gone up 1 billion 561 million dollars in 1988. On the other hand the tourist count that visit South Korea in 1988 have reached 2,300.000 by showing raise %23 as previous year and brought-in as 300 million dollars to country economy.
Seoul Games causes for making unemployment rate decrease by creating additional business fields as 302,000 people in years between 1982 and 1988 too.
Barcelona City in Spain that although it has lost after candidated four times for organizing Olympiad Games, it wasn’t undeterred and obtained this chance with 1992 Olympiad Games as fifth candidature had arisen at eighth between the most developed and habitable cities in Europe in the middle of 1991. Moreover Barcelona Olympiad Games causes for making unemployment rate decrease by creating additional business fields as 326,301 people in years between 1986 and 1992 years too.
The economic contribution of Georgia state that 1998 Atlanta Olympiad Games made between 1991 and 1997 years is 5.1 billion dollars and in the end of games state government had obtained tax revenue as 176 million dollars. Employment that increased gradually every year beginning from the taken games in Atlanta had reached 77,000 people in 1996 which was year that games were organized.
As research results on the affect of 2000 Sydney Olympiad Games,7,3 billion australia dollars were added to the gross national product of Australia and games had created additional business fields as 150,000 people. Again in this period it is expected that tourists who consist of 174,000 local and 1,3 million additional foreigners visit Sydney and they make contribution to country economy as 3 billion australia dollars. Sydney Games make the trading operation of Australia increase and revenue about 3,5 billion australia dollars will be provided from additional export in the period of 1994-2004. Along about all this, Australia will have sport complex as world-ranking and can always organize big international sport competition in a best way.
IOC that sold the telecast and sponsorship rights of olympiad games to various broadcasting organisations and companies all over the world, had sold telecast rights in USA to NBC television channel as amounting 1,181 billion dollars last week ( 2008 Beijing was almost 894 million dollars ) despite of not being neither fish nor fowl that which city 2012 Olympiad Games will organize in.
The revenue that will come from telecast rights will absorb about %60 of budget expense that the city which will organize 2012 Olympiad Games has. The other half of budget will become equal with revenues which come from ticket sales, sponsor and souvenir too.
If İstanbul organizes Olympiad Games, in the preparation period for seven years that till organized after taken games direct investment will be made as amounting 1 billion 772 million dollars on the project of İstanbul Olympiad and budget will be absorbed with revenues that come from the telecast rights of games, ticket sales, sponsorship and the program of souvenir sales. In this period it was expected that being created additional business fields as 180,000 people annual, being contributed additional contribution to our gross national product with direct and indirect investment as amounting 8 billion dollars and about 2,5 million additional tourists visit our country.
Regardless sport is an important instrument that all sections take advantage on condition that come up with universal values which have been presented by international organizations. Various cooperation agreements have been made for providing this. The cooperation protocol that has been signed between World Tourism Agency (WTA) and International Olympiad Committee (IOC) in Barcelona in the year of 2001 and the agreements that contains organization criterions which international sport organizations have declared for city and /or countries that want to organize their own organizations are such good examples that can be shown in this case.