Importance Of Football Camps In Turkey

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A Look At Our Turkish Football History

The course of sport, which is a social phenomenon, followed by the Ottoman Empire in recent times, and the developments in this process are of great importance in terms of enlightening the point we have come to today.

The course of sport, which is a social phenomenon, followed by the Ottoman Empire in recent times, and the developments in this process are of great importance in terms of enlightening the point we have come to today.

Sports branches made in our country since 1880s and sports organizations formed with those who made these sports constitute the building blocks of our sport history.

Our aim in this article is to explain why football is gaining weight in our sports organizations (how it plays a role in the marginalization of other sports branches of football) as well as Turkey's westernization adventure in sport(football) will be on the importance place. We will demonstrate to my country how and under what conditions sports are entering the territory, considering what kind of society and the world inhabited in sports.

In fact, we intend to summarize this process that needs to be written and to find clues to the fact that sports culture does not exist in our country by creating a basis for the future.

The French influence in all areas after the tanzimat reform erahad presence in the field of sports, and through foreign teachers brought from abroad, physical education will be mainly involved in gymnastics(French model) first in military schools, then in schools such as the school sultani and Robert College.Those who are not interested in horse racing and wrestling except for javelin enter the country; minority members who continue their lives in this geography and physical education teachers brought from abroad.

The first teacher of gymnastics in Turkey, Mos Moiroux, who was appointed by Sultan Mektebi, provided Turkish students with a gymnasium.

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Ali Faik Ustunkidman, who was his student, then worked as a physical education teacher at the same school and published our first sports book, gymnastics or Riyaziyat-iBedeniyye (1891). He has also contributed greatly to the development of Turkish sport by providing training of a large number of students. Selim Sirri Tarcan-Mazhar Kazanci and Vildan Ashir are some of the leading names in Turkish sports history. In this period, the sports branches of Sultan Mektebi were: athletics(1870), swimming and rowing(1873), greek wrestling(1887), bicycle(1898) and football(1905). Changes started to be made in our country in various branches of sport with the effect of Abdulhamit the second’s period, the existence of life at the borders of the school walls will cause the schools to be the origin of the sports organizations that will develop later.

So far, in our history of sports, we have briefly reviewed these developments considering the definition of our teacher Kurthan Fishek; "Sport is a social event that operates with certain rules. Sport is not only a mirror that contains the society in which it’s made, but also the contradictions and friction of the world in which it’s made... Today sport is one of the oldest and the most important social institutions. Sport in all the countries and among all the classes has rapid increase of interest in watching sports; sport is one of the distinctive characteristics of contemporary social life. It’s an entrance to our country, and the country itself began to make inroads in economic and political turmoil, and the deteriorating political structure within the country with the influence of sports organisations to make themselves visible minorities in the first instance during the period when they started to hit these groups can be seen from the names they choose for themselves. Strugglers, founded by the greeks in 1908, were blue-and-white, while they chose to be called ‘fighters’ in Greek.

Founded by the greek cypriots in 1904, Elpis meant ‘hope’, and their colors were blue-white, reminiscent of the flag of Greece. In response to the clubs established by minorities, Galatasaray high school students in 1905, “to beat non-Turkish teams,to play the ball together, to have a name and the color” (Atabeyoglu, 1991), Galatasaray Club was established and they would choose ‘red and white’ as their national colors. (They will change their colors after the first four matches.) Young people in Izmir,carrying similar goals, established Karshiyaka Club in 1912, accepting the red color that symbolizes Turkishness and the green as the symbol of islam.

Although there were many different sports in this period, there would be football that would be of mass interest. “As in Europe, the fact that sports were a subject of mass interest in the Ottoman Empire was due to the fact that large numbers of enthusiasts could gather in the open air. This was provided by football on its own...Football clubs established after 1908 with the abolition of the ban on organization will institutionalize the orientation of sports to the West and the identification of football in Turkey.It will ensure that football will continue during the period of the World War II and during the process of liberation and that football will have a great share in the establishment of sports organizations in our country.

The answer the question why football is so prominent is a bit more advanced than the features of football itself. Since football can develop from all other branches of sports by opening a more common and more symbolic social expression channel, its implications on the social life will be much more than all other branches of sport. At this point, the three big clubs, Fenerbahche, Galatasaray and Beshiktash, which have played a role in the popularity of football in our country, have performed important historical functions. These clubs have contributed to the reflection of social changes through football in the various stages of Turkey's establishment until today.

We can divide the development process of football in Turkey into four periods:

Foundation period: This process, which started with the establishment of Galatasaray and its participation in the Istanbul League, accelerated competition against the minorities and the occupation armies before the Republic and lasted until 1951 with the national cluster matches played in the three major cities within the country.

The period of 1951-1980: 1951 refers to a milestone for Turkish football. Because this year professionalism was accepted and the process of capitalization(migration from village to the city and the search for identity of these masses), which started with the influence of America in the country, has influenced football too. The end of this road will start in 1959 and Turkey will reach the first league. Football clubs will be established in almost every province after 1965 with the developing Anatolian capital.

The period of 1980-1990:changes in our political and social life after 1980 will bring football to the forefront in the process of depolitization (football as a new form of identity).

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After 1990: the new era of football as an object of consumption with the beginning of private television broadcasting (the development of football-television Association, as well as middle-class sports to be moving towards football and football fans to destroy the other with the understanding of violence and the beginning of the football enjoyment on the frontend).

This is why we have to think once again about the fact that in this country football can not create its own culture and increasingly indexed to success(success of its own team), we are facing understanding that football does not tolerate or even want to see its opponent even on the field. A brief reminder of the sport branches made in the beginning of this century in our country will show us where we came from. Today, knowing that our three big clubs, which are gradually leaving the fate of amateur branches, today are doing a number of team sports that have not been done in the past, unfortunately hurt people deeply.

Galatasaray club, with its high school connection to box, table tennis, tennis, basketball, athletics, volleyball, gymnastics, rugby, handball, scouting,grass hockey was fighting in many different branches. April 8, 1945 Fenerbahche and Galatasaray handball teams were fighting in front of 12 thousand spectators... Rugby match on May 18, 1947, Fenerbahche-Galatasaray 12-0 defeated. With football in front of other branches of sport, the number of athletes in different branches of sport in Turkey has decreased and the professionalization process has almost eliminated this situation. Sabri Mahir is the first player to be transferred abroad, and is also a very important name for the history of Turkish boxing. Like Melih Kotanca, we can reproduce the examples that successfully carry football and athleticism in Fenerbahche team.

In the Ottoman period, the sport-state relationship was first in the direction of banning Turkish and muslim citizens, while the state's determinism for Turkish and muslim citizens was eliminated with the libertarian air after 1908. Sport has taken its share from cosmopolitan life in Istanbul. After the Republic, we face a new state and a new point of view. The 1930's are an important place for young people who want to be educated in the New Republic of Turkey. In these years, kemalism's view on the sport will be seen dominating by the state qualifications. Attempts are made to gather the masses under the roof of a single party. "Strict state control on sports will not only increase state power in non-political areas, but will also broaden and reinforce the loyalty of the masses to the party through the attractiveness and excitement of the sport. The most popular teams in Ataturk’s Turkey at that time, for example, were sent to Fenerbahche Zonguldak-Adana-Samsun-Trabzon and Anatolian cities such as Elazigwhere tournaments were organized. People here were watching Fenerbahche in big crowds.

Atatürk's aim was to establish a strong link between the popularity of sports or a sports club and Turkey's new regime.In 1937 all athletes were registered as members of the CHP. The law of 1938 on physical education(even its name is extremely impressive), which is the first sport organization before the Republic, will affect the achievements created by the UnitedTraining Communityof Turkey.

"The Law of the physical education of 1938 is a clear manifestation of formal eugenics tendencies. In accordance with the national and ‘revolutionary’ purposes under the control of the state, it has been entrusted with the regulation of the game, gymnastics and sports activities that will enable development of the citizens' physical and moral capacities. The third article of the law obliges young people to participate in sports clubs and physical education programs in their spare time. Another interpretation of this law is made by Yalchin Dogan: “this law,which was in effect for fifty years, until 1988, was actually the law that allowed sports and football to be used primarily by politics... Here, especially football clubs have established a connection to political power based on this Law... During the one-party period, again the big clubsexperiencedthemost striking example of supervising football from the top. Prime Minister Shyukryu Sarachoglu was heading Fenerbahche, the head of Beshiktashwas first the Minister of Internal Affairs, then Prime Minister Rejep Peker, the leader of Galatasaray was both the journalist and another Minister Necmettin Sadak.

It can not be said that the 1970s were very productive in terms of the history of Turkish sports, which was turbulent in terms of the country. After 1980 football will play an important role in the process of depoliticization. Understanding the impact of football on the masses very quickly, Prime Minister Turgut Ozal, unlike the prime ministers who had given the Cupsto themselves before, will go abroad to watch the match and will start the new process between politicians and football fans. Ozal's connection with Europe, of course had an impact on football; field germination, infrastructure investments have come up and football has been given special importance due to its ideological influence towards the South-East.

The success of Turkish clubs showed itself in the late 80s. Turkey, which was not accepted into the European Community, became European thanks to Galatasaray. Our people had also taken their revenge from Europe, which had been constantly ignoring us, even for a while, from the negativities they had been in through football. Football was taking its place in the rising values. Because football became one of the basic institutions of the system. The expansion of private television has strengthened football-television Association and has led to the prolongation of football-filled days and nights. However, watching football images during the single-channel television season was one of the indispensable habits of our Sunday nights, and football was an extraordinary side in our lives.

While free market and liberalism are becoming the only world order, its practice in sports is done with football. Together with the whole world, we are involved in this drag. In this push, the logic of consumption is heavy, and our masses, whether we want or not, are headed there. The fact that football is the most popular sport for our country in every period accelerates this trend. The transformation in the media after 1990 increased popularity of football. Football, which has become a social phenomenon, is not only a game, but also a sport that contributes to the formation and transfer of a number of powers and power relationships. The meaning we have given to this game, which gives popularity to football itself. In this respect, when we look at the game, we can see that a real fiction, a picture of football has been tried to be created.

The weakness of the connection established by the Turkish people with sport affairs and the fact that the rulers of the political arena are in vital areas such as education and health; they have to abandon this area directly linked to the human-social life and the future with limited budget in the sports field; prevent this relationship from strengthening and spreading.

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In addition to this, Turkish sport fans(mostly viewers because our people like to watch football rather than playing it, and even watch their own team) focus on the lines of football, especially with the momentum gained over the last 20 years; private televisions also contributed to the acceleration of this process.

Extreme focus on football has led to bolstering of other sports branches. Almost all of our sports clubs have actually become football clubs. Today, the main thing for the majority of the fans of our three big clubs is the encounter of the football team. Their team's interest in other sports such as volleyball, basketball, handball is extremely low.

The lack of sports culture and the fact that we could not develop a football culture in addition to this, has been effective in increasing the violent movements experienced in sports fields(mostly football fields) at the point where we came today. A mindset which is indexed to success and which looks to life with the logic of winning whatever happens, not only wants to deal with the beauties experienced in sports fields, but also wants the success of the team. If this does not happen, it does not hesitate to resort to violence. Even the presence of what we call the "other" in stadiums disturbs them and think they have won victory by throwing rivals out of the stadium. Unfortunately, our sports clubs also contribute to the acceleration of this process by not making attempts to create and improve the club-supporters' association by the wrong actions of their managers.

Giving examples of the past and relieving nostalgia feelings will not help. We have to accept the fact that we are living in another period and that this period has a unique set of features within itself and we have to act accordingly. The more we can put and spread sport into our lives, the more we can see our differences and diversity.

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