Football Trainings Make Sportsmen Healthy

Football Training

WARMING UP

Prior to a competition or training, all of the physical and mental activities that are performed to achieve the proper value performance required for that competition or training are called warming-up.

In short, warming up is preparation of the body as a whole for the competition or work.

The concept of warming up is evaluated, the warming event, first of all, should be considered in two dimensions. These dimensions are as follows:

General warming up and

Local warming up concepts.

Here, the general warming of the whole body before a competition and training is donein active or passive ways. Local warming is warming with active or passive methods that involveswarming of some muscle groups during the healing process or during the preparation period after the healing process after sports injuries or traumatism.

Enough warming due to Aerobic (with oxygen) formation of energy, and anaerobic (without oxygen) energy formation are affected in a positive way. In terms of neuro-muscular (nerve-muscle) function, adequate warming up and muscle strength were found to increase.

In general, warming up increases such characteristics as endurance, speed, force, leap, yawning ability. At the same time, one of the most important factors in terms of health is minimization of risks of sports injuries such as warming and muscle, ligament and tendon injuries. For this reason, in general, two basic effects are considered when warming up on the basis of muscles:

A-prophylactic (preventive) effect of the event.

B-The effect of the event to increase performance of the workforce.

When the sports literature was scanned, it was determined that the effects of the warming up on performance were always positive.

Heating patterns are divided into informal and formal heating. Informal warming is a form of non-genre work such as jogging, straight running, calisthenics (culture-physics).

Formal warming up covers the movements specific to the sport branch. Basketball tourniquet, volleyball service, tennis service or playing tennis walls, football pastel(rat in the middle) are examples of forms of formal warming movements.

Heating should start with informal heating and continue with formal heating. There are two views on this subject for informal warming. At the first sight, the first thing to do is to warm up with movements that are not specific to the branch. The second opinion is that jogging must be done before stretching.

After the informal heating, the formal heating that is peculiar to that branch is switched to. The final phase of warming should consist of formal movements.

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Tactics

Individual, group, or team

1-) Pass and support

High Quality Pass

In time

Effectve

Right

Deceiving

Quality Support

Angle

Distance

Behind

In front

2-) Depth And Width

Depth

Longitudinal spread of the team

Opening distances between defenders

Extend time and space for players to meet the ball

Width

Spreading the team to the width of the field

Expanding areas between defensive players

Extending the field so that players can pass to the three front players

3-) Running to the Empty Areas of the Opponent‘s Defense

WITH AND WITHOUT A BALL

Running forward and foot passingforward and to the free field running

Forward and to the empty area passing, running across the empty area

Collective running affects competitors

Dribbling to get rid of the opponent

Attack in order to win the middle ball

4-) Mobility / Displacement

Creating space and using it

Behind, in front of own gates behind the opponent

Opponent in front of the gate, opponent in front

Taking pass to create space for making a width

Creating wide areas in the field, shooting to the gate

Creating space for oneself with/without a ball

Support creating space for team mates

5-) Constructivism

INDIVIDUAL COMBINATION

Cheating / deception quick game

Surprise moves smart game

Cheating on creating a goal opportunity

Throwing a goal surprise movements

Getting rid of pressure to create a goal opportunity

Dribbling goal shoots

Return to get rid of oppression

Shooting

PRINCIPLES OF ATTACK

Pass and Support

Depth and Width

Attack between the defense

Mobility and displacement

Improvisation (Creation)

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PRINCIPLES OF DEFENSE

Recovery and distraction

Depth and Support

Concentration

Balancing

Control and prevention

TECHNIQUE

Ball and body domination.

It’s the fastest, most economical and aesthetic way of making football-specific movements for a specific purpose under the conditions of the match.

Playing today's football at a high tempo has increased the importance of the technique.

FOOTBALL TECHNIQUE TEACHING AND LEARNING PRINCIPLES

Should Start Early

* Must Be Done Correctly, It Should Be Done

* A Football Player Should Not Be Tired

* Movements Should Not Be Done In A Row

*Match Conditions Must Be Equal

* Must Be Met Right/Wrong

* Mistakes Must Be Corrected Immediately In Place

* A Footballer Should Play After Having Rest

* Must Be Done From Easy To Difficult

* Must Be Continuously Repeated

FOOTBALL TECHNIQUE-BODY TECHNIQUE - BALL TECHNIQUE

(WITHOUT A BALL) (WITH A BALL)

Running ABall (Feeling a Ball)

Direction And Tempo Control Changes

Jumping, Bouncing, Following A Ball (Dripling)

Try To Interfere With The Ball By Lying Down

Wasted Strokes

Marking PassAnd Medium Single

Body Workout Shot And Vole Single

TECHNIQUE

It’s the fastest, most economical and aesthetic way of making football-specific movements for a specific purpose under the conditions of the match.

SHORT DESCRIPTION

Ball and body domination.

IMPORTANCE OF TECHNIQUE

Playing today's football at a high tempo has increased importance of the technique.

FOOTBALL TECHNIQUE TEACHING AND LEARNING PRINCIPLES

Should start early

Must be done correctly

Afootballer should not be tired

Movements should not be done in a row

Match conditions should be equal

Right-wrong comparison

Mistakes must be corrected immediately in place

A Footballer must play after having rest

Must Be Done From Easy To Difficult

Must Be Continuously Repeated

Should give instant information

Information should be given continuously

THE BENEFITS OF TECHNICAL STUDIES IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING AND TEACHING (BENEFITS)

Automating is achieved with repeated frequently for a long time.

Problems that may arise in the positions of the competition provide the most accurate solutions

Applying tactics at a high level provides advantage

Not wasting evergy more than necessarygives advantage in fitness

The probability of injury decreases, the level of productivity increases.

Not getting affected by any negative external conditions during a match (such as stress, mental fatigue, audience pressure, adverse weather conditions).

SPRINT EXERCISES

Sprint exercises are applied at an average duration of 8 sec with maximum speed and distance of 40-60m

Load density: 100%

Number of repetitions until exhaustion

Practice

30-40 m running

20-30 sec. continue to fatigue in the form of rest

20-30 sec. rest continued until tiredness

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ISSUES TO BE CONSIDERED DURING SPEED FOOTBALL TRAINING IN

Very good heating should be done.

Movements should be done at the highest tempo.

Fatigue should be stopped as soon as it was noticed.

There should be no practising in very cold weather.

No training should be done on a hard floor.

It should be done with special materials.

The loading time should not exceed 8 sec.

The distance to run at a time should not exceed 60m.

In studies exercises with asymmetric speed should be used.

FORCE

Force is the ability to withstand a certain degree of resistance.

In sports, a person can resist resistance or move a tool or his own body forward.

Force is a result of tension of muscles, dependent on a muscle group.

FACTORS AFFECTING FORCE

Age and Gender Factor

When examined in terms of general development of force, there is no difference between men and women until the age of 10-11. But after this age, men can have more strength than women. Both for men and women, from 12 to 19 years of age, the force is also increasing, parallel to the increase of body weight.This increase slows down until the age of 30 and shows a decrease after the age of 30.

Motivational Factors

The capacity of each athlete has a limited threshold. This threshold is 60-65% in athletes without training, and 80% in athletes with training. The next power is the motivational power. So it's about how well motivated an athlete is.

Neural Factors

Changes in the nervous system have a stimulating effect on the strength. Studies have shown that the central nervous system is extremely important for muscles strength. The goal of strength training is to increase the number of motor units to participate in muscle contraction every day.

Mechanical Factors

Depending on tension of the working muscles in various degrees, the change in tensile strength, the rotation of the joints around the axis inward and outward, is the angle of movement.

The Heat Factor

When the temperature of muscle fibers is higher than normal body temperature, muscle contraction becomes faster and stronger. As a result of the increase in temperature, decreased muscle viscosity, chemical reactions speed up.

The Energy Factor

Muscular strength affects the muscle's energy store. Increasing one's strength depends on increasing the energy source.

Fatigue Factor

Fatigue reduces muscle stimulation, muscle strength and contraction. Fatigue deliberately reduces the response of the fibril to the stimulus. This decrease reduces the contraction force of the muscle.

Recovery Factor

Another factor affecting muscles strength is the ability to recover after work. Recovery depends on O2 supply to muscle tissue, the removal of CO2 and other wastes from the tissue, the supply of energizing substances and minerals and other elements consumed during muscle activity.

9.Warming Factor

Tension-stretching exercises are other factors that affect muscles strength. While strength increases with increased flexibility, injuries will also be reduced.

CLASSIFICATION OF FORCE

We can examine force as two parts, the general force and the special force.

General force: specifies the strength of the entire muscle system. Low-level general strength may be a factor limiting the overall development of the athlete. It‘s the strength of all the muscles in the same balance for each branch of sport without turning to a branch of the sport.

Special force: the force directed to a particular branch of sport. This is due to two basic factors.

  1. Giving priority to development of the muscle groups that participate directly in any sport technomotorically. The basis of this is the neuromuscular relationship specific to the technique.
  2. In such a study, the force is developed together, especially in other motorics. This will be unique to the sport branch. This type of force is specific to the character of every sport.

The classification of strength in terms of training knowledge can be examined in three parts. Maximal force, quick force, continuity in force.

Maximal force: it‘s the highest force that we can achieve with contraction of our muscles and communication of the nervous-muscle system. A certain resistance (kg) to move to a certain place (m). So the unit is kgm.

When a muscle or a muscle group does not have the greatest force possible, and as soon as possible, it‘s necessary to do the necessary movement. Nervous muscle is the ability of the system to come superior to resistance with a high contraction rate. In other words, rapid force; nerve and muscle system with a high contraction rate is able to overcome resistance.

Continuity in force: the ability of the organism to withstand fatigue in long-term force loads.

KEY PRINCIPLES IN PLANNING STRENGTH TRAINING

A good general warming should be done prior to strength training.

Special warming should be done prior to force training.

Auxiliary material (clothing+ vehicle) should be used.

Correct technique is important in working the movements.

Asymmetry should be avoided in movements.

Additional weights should be used according to each player's own load capacity.

The movements applied should be preferred to be similar to football.

In the movements, assistance or supervision is absolutely necessary

Breathing in while lifting weights- breathing out while dropping

Exercise sequence (from large muscle groups to small muscle groups, upper body muscles and lower group muscles to work alternately)

The number of exercises in initial studies is more than (9-12)

Less advanced athletes (3-6)

The number of repetitions

PLYOMETRİC FORCE

One of the most popular activities to improve strength is the plyometric exercises. This method uses body weight or tools to increase the effect of training.

As a fundamental principle, negative and positive dynamic work are the whole. This method is used in sports that fight against gravity(high jumping, long jumping, basketball, volleyball, gymnastics, etc.).

Athletes are asked to jump to the platforms with weights. Therefore, this study is called shock method and depth jumping. The intensity and duration of the study should be determined according to an athlete. These are the basic parts of exercises;

  1. Increasing the body's center of gravity thus, when the body falls down to the ground, the additional force created by gravity forms more force than the normal energy stored in the muscles.
  2. Contact with the ground and change of direction of the movement.
  3. Either vertical or horizontal, or the combination of two, the body is ejected or moved.
  4. Slow down or do not take any breaks properly.

COORDINATION

For the intended movement, it‘s the interaction between the central nervous system and the musculoskeletal system in harmony.

The ability to learn football-specific movements (especially difficult movements) in a short period of time and to react quickly and appropriately to the purpose in different situations.

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SUBCOMPONENTS OF COORDINATION

Ability to adapt

Reaction capability

Balance capability

Rhythm capability

Direction change in space-space

FACTORS AFFECTING COORDINATION

Fitness Capabilities

Wealth of Motion

Personal Sport Intelligence

Sensual Organs Thickness or Precision

Motor Experience (Knowledge)

DEVELOPMENT OF COORDINATION

Width of Motion Application

Changing posture

Exit position change

Change of the movementpattern

Hardness of pass and changing its angle

Changing distances

Changing External Conditions

Use of different training areas

The use of weather conditions

The use of different balls

Merge of motion combinations

Changing order of the technical elements side by side

Playing small games using auxiliary tools

Use of complex exercises, combined and game shapes

Change of Tactical Assignments

Organization Of Rival Players

Individual and collective Requests

Working Under Time Pressure

Shrinking The Area

Commissioning the Rival

According to the signal short-term reaction request

Change of Rules Of the Game

Change Of the Play Area

Change Of the Team Force

Limitation Of Movements

Changes to the Information Received

Work in front of the mirror

By raising head up or by reducing the effect of certain sensory organs (vision, etc.).

INTERVAL METHOD

Extensive (broad) interval method, intensive (stiff) Interval method

Improves continuity in strength. Improves continuity in speed

Density: 60-80% Density: 80-100%

Duration: 30 sec – 8 min Duration: 20 sec – 2 min

Relaxation: Productive Relaxation: Productive

With the method of repetition we develop the unit properties. Rest is full rest.

The interval method improves the continuity of the unit properties. Rest is fruitful.

EXTENSIVE (BROAD) INTERVAL

The work that needs to be used the most in the football extensive studies have made the ball very popular today. Such games as 3: 3,4: 4 are recommended to be played with a ball.

INTENSIVE (STIFF) INTERVAL

The best type of study currently used is 1.1, 2.2, and the intensive study is applied only in high-level teams. Young and amateur teams do not apply. It‘s appropriate to apply extensive method on tools instead of intensive work.

If the continuity studies at speed are made incorrectly,

1-Damage to the nervous system

2-destruction of the immune system

3-driveway

THE PRINCIPLES THAT SHOULD BE TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION IN INTERVAL STUDIES ARE AS FOLLOWS:

Intensity of study

Frequency of study

Duration of study

Scope of the study

Rest

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